Terminology

Breakdown – Wrestler has opponent flat on his belly.

Cross Face – Forearm is placed on the near side of the opponent’s face to maneuver him for control.

Decision – A decision occurs when the margin of victory is fewer than 8 points.  A decision also is credited to the wrestler who is awarded the first points in a sudden victory overtime match that does not end with a fall, default, or disqualification.

Default – A default is awarded in a match when one of the wrestlers is unable to continue wrestling for any reason.  A default shall be included as a win or loss in each wrestler’s season record.

Disqualification – A disqualification is a situation in which a contestant is banned from participation in accordance with a pre-determined penalty table.  A disqualification shall be included as a win or loss in each wrestler’s season record.

Escape – When a defensive (bottom) wrestler gains a neutral position and his opponent has lost control while at least one wrestler is inbounds.  This is scored as one point.

Fall – Any part of both shoulders of either wrestler held in contact with the mat for one second constitutes a fall.  A fall shall not be awarded unless part of both shoulders are in bounds.  If any portion of the body of one of the wrestlers is out of bounds so that the wrestler is disadvantaged, no fall shall be awarded and out of bounds shall be declared.  When the match is stopped for out of bounds in a fall situation, the match shall be resumed in the starting position on the mat.

Folkstyle – The style of wrestling used in high school and colleges (and by our club).  The main strategy in Folkstyle wrestling is to exert control over your opponent.  The scoring in folkstyle is geared toward controlling your opponent such as awarding 2 or 3 points for a near fall.

Forfeit – A forfeit is received by a wrestler when the opponent for any reason, fails to appear for the match.  In order to receive a forfeit or medical forfeit, the non-forfeiting wrestler must be dressed in a wrestling uniform and appear on the mat.  A forfeit or medical forfeit shall be included as a win in the victor’s season record.  In the event of injury or illness, a contestant may declare a medical forfeit, which counts as a win, but not as a loss on record.

Freestyle – This is one of the Olympic styles.  Freestyle wrestling is similar to folkstyle in the manner of wrestling, but a different scoring system is used.  Freestyle wrestling is done in three periods where the goal is to win two of the three periods.  Also, the emphasis in freestyle is high amplitude moves.  For example, a regular takedown is awarded only one point where as a takedown where the opponent is taken down from his feet to his back in one move is awarded three points.

Greco-Roman – This is one of the Olympic styles.  Greco-Roman wrestling is unique in that the wrestlers are not allowed to attack their opponent below the waist or defend with their legs.  The emphasis in Greco is commonly to throw your opponent to his back.  Greco-Roman is done in three periods where the goal is to win two of the three periods.

Hand Control – Control your opponent’s hand.

In Bounds – Contestants are considered to be in bounds if the supporting parts of either wrestler are inside the inner edge of the boundary lines.  A wrestler’s supporting points are the parts of the body, touching, or within, the wrestling area that bears the wrestler’s weight, other than those parts being used to hold the opponent.  (Down on the mat, the usual points of support are the knees, the side of the thigh, the buttocks and the hands).  Wrestling continues as long as the supporting parts of wither wrestler remain in bounds. When the defensive wrestler’s back exposed to the mat in a pinning situation while at least the supporting points of wither wrestler are in bounds, wrestling continues as long as there is a possibility of the offensive wrestler bringing the opponent back in bounds.  In this situation, the defensive wrestler’s shoulders are the supporting parts.  Near-fall points may be earned only while any part of the defensive wrestler’s shoulders are in bounds.  If there is no action at the edge of the mat and one wrestler is out of bounds, the referee may stop the match.  Upon resumption of the match, the contestants begin in the neutral position at the center of the mat if neither wrestler had control.  If one wrestler has the advantage, that contestant will take the offensive starting position at the center of the mat, and the opponent will assume the defensive starting position.

Major Decision – A major decision occurs when the margin of victory after three periods is 8 through 14 points.

Near Fall – When any part of both shoulders of the defensive wrestler are held for at least 2 seconds within 4 inches of the mat OR when one shoulder is touching the mat with the other shoulder held at an angle of 45 degrees or less.  If near fall criteria are met for 2 continuous seconds, 2 points are awarded when the defensive wrestler is out of the predicament.  If near fall criteria is met for 5 continuous seconds a 3 point near fall is awarded when the defensive wrestler is out of the near fall situation.

Neutral Position – The starting position in which both contestants are standing opposite each other with their lead foot on the green or red area of the starting lines and their other foot even with or behind the lead foot.  In the neutral position, neither wrestler has control.

Optional Start – When match is re-started from the referee’s position, the top wrestler may chose to use the optional start.  The wrestler must inform the referee that he chooses to use the optional start.  The referee then informs the bottom wrestler that his opponent is choosing the optional start.  The top wrestler then starts from a standing position behind his opponent and places both of his hands on his opponent’s back.

Penalty – Usually novice wrestlers are given warnings before any points are awarded.  A wrestler is awarded point(s) for technical violations or infractions (illegal holds, unnecessary roughness, un-sportsman-like conduct, or stalling) of rules committed by his opponent.  This is worth one point.

Pin – See Fall.

Position of Advantage – A situation in which a wrestler is in control and maintaining restraining power over an opponent.  Control is the determining factor.  The offensive wrestler is entitled to their advantage until such time as the opponent gains a neutral position or a reversal.

Referee’s Position – The starting position usually used to start the second and third periods or when the match is restarted with one wrestler in control. The bottom wrestler takes a stationary position at the center of the mat with both hands and knees on the mat, as directed by the referee.  The elbows may not touch the mat.  The top wrestler usually starts with one knee down and one up, with one hand on his opponent’s elbow and the other positioned on his opponent’s navel.

Reversal – When the defensive wrestler comes from the bottom position and gains control of his opponent wither on the mat or in a rear standing position, while the supporting points of either wrestler are inbounds.  This is scored as two points.

Shoot – Making an attempt for a takedown.

Sprawl – A defensive counter attack on legs, falling forwards with your legs going back.

Stalemate – When the contestants are interlocked in a position other than a pinning situation in which neither wrestler can improve position, the referee stops the match as soon as possible;  wrestling is resumed as for out of bounds.

Stalling – Offensive or defensive wrestler fails to attempt to gain control or go for the pin.

Stance – Correct standing position.

Takedown – From a neutral position, a wrestler gains control over their opponent down on the mat while the supporting parts of either wrestler are inbounds.  This is scored as two points.

Technical Fall – A technical fall occurs when a wrestler has earned a 15-point advantage over an opponent in Folkstyle Wrestling.

Wrist Control – Control your opponent’s wrist.